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Grape Varieties

White Wine Grapes

Aligoté
Aligoté is a white grape used to make dry white wines in the Burgundy region of France. It is the fourth most planted wine grape in the world. The wine was first recorded in Burgundy in the 18th century.

Arinto
Arinto is a white Portuguese wine grape planted primarily in the Bucelas, Ribatejo and Vinho Verde regions. It can produce high acid wines with lemon notes

Chardonnay
Chardonnay is a green-skinned grape variety used to make white wine. It is believed to have originated in the Burgundy wine region of eastern France but is now grown wherever wine is produced, from England to New Zealand. For new and developing wine regions, growing Chardonnay is seen as a "rite of passage" and an easy segue into the international wine market. The Chardonnay grape itself is very neutral, with many of the flavors commonly associated with the grape being derived from such influences as terroir and oak. It is vinified in many different styles, from the elegant, "flinty" wines of Chablis to rich, buttery Meursaults and New World wines with tropical fruit flavors.

Chasselas
Chasselas is a wine grape variety grown in Switzerland, France, Germany, Portugal and New Zealand. Chasselas is mostly vinified to be a full, dry and fruity white wine. It is also suitable as a table grape, grown widely for this purpose in Turkey. In France it is mostly grown in the Loire region where it is converted into a blend with Sauvignon Blanc called "Pouilly-sur-Loire" and in the Savoie region where it is treated in the Swiss manner. In New Zealand it is mainly made into popular sweet white wines. California and Australian growers know this variety under the alias names of Chasselas Dore or Golden Chasselas.

Chenin Blanc
Chenin Blanc, or Pineau de la Loire, is a variety of white wine grape from the Loire valley of France. Its high acidity means it can be used to make everything from sparkling wines to well-balanced dessert wines, although it can produce very bland, neutral wines if the vine's natural vigor is not controlled. Outside the Loire it is found in most of the New World wine regions; it is the most widely planted variety in South Africa, where it is also known as Steen.

Fiano
The Fiano grape variety is a fairly strong flavoured wine grape native to the south of Italy, particularly in around Avellino in the Campania region, where Fiano di Avellino has been in cultivation for more than two thousand years。The grape is relatively low in yield. Several Australian producers have begun to use the grape. Production seems to be increasing, but the number of vineyards growing it is still small. One example of an Australian vineyard growing Fiano and producing a wine from it is Coriole, a vineyard in the McLaren Vale of South Australia.

Garganega Bianca
Garganega is a variety of white wine grape widely grown in the Veneto region of North East Italy, particularly in the provinces of Verona and Vicenza. It forms the basis of the well-known white wine Soave (along with up to 30% of Trebbiano) and is also a major portion of the blend used to make Gambellara. At its best this grape will give a good, rather delicate, wine laden with aromatic hints of lemon and almonds.

Gewürztraminer
Gewürztraminer is an aromatic wine grape variety that performs best in cooler climates. Gewürztraminer is a variety with a pink to red skin colour, which makes it a white wine grape in difference to the blue- to black-skinned varieties commonly referred to as "red wine grapes". The variety has high natural sugar and the wines are white and usually off-dry, with a flamboyant bouquet of lychees. Dry Gewürztraminers may also have aromas of roses, passion fruit and floral notes. It is not uncommon to notice some spritz (fine bubbles on the inside of the glass). Its aromatic flavours make Gewürztraminer one of the few wines that is suitable for drinking with Asian cuisine. It goes well with Munster cheese, and fleshy, fatty (oily) wild game. Smoked salmon is a particularly good match.

Grecanico
Grecanico is a white Italian wine grape grown primarily in Sicily. The grapes ripens late and can produce a wine with tangy acidity.

Grüner Veltliner
It is sometimes said that Grüner Veltliner dates back to Roman times and that its name is derived from Valtellina in northern Italy. Now it is well known as a famous white quality grape variety grown primarily in Austria, Slovakia and in the Czech Republic. In Austria, it accounts for 32.6% of all vineyards in the country. It is made into wines of many different styles - much is intended for drinking young in the Heuriger (bars serving new wine) of Vienna, a little is made into sparkling wine, but some is capable of long aging. Citrus and peach flavors are more apparent, with spicy notes of pepper and sometimes tobacco.

Marsanne
Marsanne is a white wine grape, most commonly found in the northern Rhône, where it is often blended with Roussanne. It is also grown in Switzerland, where it's known as ermitage blanc or ermitage, Victoria in Australia, and California. In Rhône, Marsanne is the most widely planted white wine grape in the Hermitage AOC where it is a component of the white Hermitage wines in a blend with Roussanne. Up to 15% of the red wine version of Hermitage can include Marsanne. Marsanne produces deeply colored wines that are rich and nutty, with hints of spice and pear. As Marsanne ages, the wine take on an even darker color and the flavors can become more complex and concentrated with an oily, honeyed texture. Aromas of nuts and quince can also develop.

Melon de Bourgogne
Melon de Bourgogne is a variety of white grape grown in the Loire Valley region of France and best known through its use in the wine Muscadet. As its name suggests, the grape originated in Burgundy and was grown there until its destruction was ordered in the early 18th century. In the vineyards around Nantes, however, the harsh winter of 1709 destroyed so many vines that a new variety was needed, and the Melon grape was introduced. Melon is distinguished by its great resistance to frost. Since then it has been used solely in the production of the light dry white wine Muscadet, which is made entirely from the Melon grape. The grape is so associated with this popular appellation of the western Loire that the grape itself is often known as Muscadet. In terms of flavour it is an undistinguished grape with few strong features. A few acres of the grape are also grown in Oregon, where it is known simply as Melon.

Muscat / Moscato
There are a great many varieties of muscat, suggesting perhaps that it is the oldest domesticated grape variety. The grape's color ranges from white to almost black, and its aroma usually has a strong sweet floral aroma.

Muscat of Alexandria
Also known as Moscatell / Moscatel de Málaga, de Setúbal. It is considered an "ancient vine", and wine experts believe it is one of the oldest genetically unmodified vines still in existence. While today it is mostly cultivated as a table grape or for raisin production, it is still an important grape in the Australian and South African wine industry. It is also cultivated very heavily on the island of Samos, in the North Eastern Aegean region of Greece, and reputedly Cleopatra drank muscat wine from there. In Spain, the grape is used for wine around Málaga, Alicante, Valencia, and the Canary Islands.

Muscat Blanc à Petits Grains
Its name comes from its characteristic small berry size and tight clusters. While technically a white grape, there are some vines that produce berries that are pink or reddish brown. The same vine could potentially produce berries of one color one year and a different color the next. These strains are more prevalent in Australia, where the grape is also known as Frontignac and Brown Muscat. South Africa's Muskadel strain tends to show the same darker characteristics.

Muscadelle (Tokay in Australia)
Muscadelle is a white wine grape. It has a simple aroma of grape juice and raisins like grapes of the Muscat family of grapes, but it is unrelated. In France, it is a minor constituent in the sweet wines of Bordeaux, such as those of Sauternes and Barsac. It rarely makes up more than 10% of the blend, which is dominated by Sémillon and Sauvignon Blanc. Throughout the 1990s and the beginning of the 21st century, plantings of the grape were falling. In Australia, the grape is used to make an increasingly popular fortified wine, sometimes known as Liqueur Tokay.

Muscat Ottonel
It is most notable for its use in dessert wines from Austria and Croatia as well as dry wines from Alsace and Hungary.

Nuragus
An indigenous grapevine variety grown in the southwest of Sardinia. It has several synonym names including Abbondosa and Axina. It is mainly used as a dry varietal wine suitable for seafood dish accompaniment.

Pinot Blanc / Pinot Bianco 
Pinot blanc is a white wine grape. It is a genetic mutation of Pinot gris, which is itself a mutation of Pinot noir. This grape is grown in several countries. In Germany, Italy and Hungary, the wine produced from this grape is a full-bodied white. In France, the grape is particularly found in Alsace, where it is used for both still white wines and the most common variety used for sparkling wine, Crémant d'Alsace. Pinot blanc is sometimes confused with Chardonnay, and wineries often vinify it in a similar style, using barrel fermentation, new oak and malolactic fermentation. It can also be treated more lightly and made into a crisper wine that still has some ability to age.

Pinot Grigio
Pinot gris is a white wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. Thought to be a mutant clone of the Pinot noir grape, it normally has a grayish-blue fruit, accounting for its name ("gris" meaning "gray" in French) but the grape can have a brownish pink to black and even white appearance. The word "Pinot", which means "pinecone" in French, could have been given to it because the grapes grow in small pinecone-shaped clusters. The wines produced from this grape also vary in color from a deep golden yellow to copper and even a light shade of pink. The clone of Pinot gris grown in Italy is known as Pinot grigio.

Prosecco
Prosecco is a variety of white grape grown in the Veneto region of Italy, and also gives its name to the sparkling wine made from the grape. The grape is grown in the Conegliano and Valdobbiadene wine-growing regions north of Treviso. Its late ripening has led to its use in dry sparkling (spumante) and semi-sparkling (frizzante) wines, with their characteristic bitter aftertaste.

Riesling
Riesling is a white grape variety which originates in the Rhine region of Germany. Riesling is an aromatic grape variety displaying flowery, almost perfumed, aromas as well as high acidity. It is used to make dry, semi-sweet, sweet and sparkling white wines. Riesling wines are usually varietally pure and are seldom oaked. As of 2004, Riesling was estimated to be the world's 20th most grown variety at 48,700 hectares (120,000 acres) (and increasing), but in terms of importance for quality wines, it is usually included in the "top three" white wine varieties together with Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc. Riesling is a variety which is highly "terroir-expressive", meaning that the character of Riesling wines is clearly influenced by the wine's place of origin.

Roussanne
Roussanne is a white wine grape grown originally in the Rhône wine region in France, where it is often blended with Marsanne. It is the only other white variety, besides Marsanne, allowed in the northern Rhône appellations of Crozes-Hermitage AOC, Hermitage AOC and Saint-Joseph AOC. In the southern Rhône appellation of Châteauneuf-du-Pape AOC it is one of six white grapes allowed, along with Grenache blanc, Piquepoul blanc, Clairette, Bourboulenc and Picardan. The Châteauneuf-du-Pape appellation also allows it to be blended into red wines. The grape is also planted in various wine-growing regions of the New World, such as California, Washington, and Australia as well as the European regions such as Tuscany and Spain.

Sauvignon Blanc
Sauvignon blanc is a green-skinned grape variety which originates from the Bordeaux region of France. The grape gets its name from the French word sauvage ("wild") and blanc ("white") due to its early origins as an indigenous grape in South West France. It is now planted in many of the world's wine regions, producing a crisp, dry, and refreshing white varietal wine. Conversely, the grape is also a component of the famous dessert wines from Sauternes and Barsac. Sauvignon blanc is widely cultivated in France, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, California, and South America. Depending on climate, the flavor can range from aggressively grassy to sweetly tropical. Wine experts have used the phrase "crisp, elegant, and fresh" as a favorable description of Sauvignon blanc from the Loire Valley and New Zealand. Sauvignon blanc, when slightly chilled, pairs well with fish or cheese, particularly goat cheese. It is also known as one of the few wines that can pair well with sushi.

Torrontes
Torrontés is the characteristic white wine grape of Argentina, producing fresh, aromatic white wines. Three Torrontés varieties exist in Argentina: Torrontés Riojano, the most common, Torrontés Sanjuanino, and Torrontés Mendocino. Generally has a lychee and peach fruit aroma.

Sémillon
Sémillon is a golden-skinned grape used to make dry and sweet white wines, most notably in France and Australia. The grape is rather heavy, with low acidity and an almost oily texture. It has a high yield and wines based on it can age a long time. Along with Sauvignon Blanc and Muscadelle, Sémillon is one of only three approved white wine varieties in the Bordeaux region. The grape is also key to the production of sweet wines such as Sauternes.

Trebbiano/Ugni Blanc
Trebbiano is a grape variety that probably makes more white wine in the world than any other. It gives good yields, but makes undistinguished wine at best. It can be fresh and fruity, but doesn't keep long. Its high acidity makes it important in cognac production. Also known as Ugni Blanc, it has many other names reflecting a family of local subtypes, particularly in Italy and France.

Vermentino
Vermentino is a late-ripening white grape originating in Spain or Madeira, or perhaps Portugal, and now widely planted in Corsica, Sardinia, and the coastal arc running from Tuscany through Liguria and into southern France, around Nice (where it is known as Rolle). It is thought to be related to the Malvasia variety and to have been brought to Italy in the fifteenth century during the period of Spanish domination.The leaves are dark green and pentagonal. The grapes are amber-yellow and hang in pyramidal bunches.The vines are often grown on slopes facing the sea where they can benefit from the additional reflected light.

Viognier
Viognier is a white wine grape. It is the only permitted grape for the French wine Condrieu in the Rhone valley. Viognier has been planted much more extensively around the world since the early 1990s. Both California and Australia now have significant amounts of land devoted to the Viognier grape. There are also notable planting increases in areas of moderate climate such as Virginia's Monticello AVA region. Viognier wines are well-known for their powerful floral aromas. There are also many fruit aromas which can be perceived in these wines depending on where they were grown, the weather conditions and how old the vines were.

Viosinho
A Portuguese native and part one of the varietals used (along with Malvasia, Gouveio, and the more rare Codega and Rabigato) to make the white version of the great fortified wine of Oporto. White ports can range from very dry and good as an aperitif, to heavy and sweet and perfect for dessert. Viosinho is generally used to add a touch of acidity to the mix, but it can also have interesting floral and apricot components. Though rare, especially outside of Portugal, dry versions exist that can take well to oak aging.

White Grenache
Grenache blanc is a variety of white wine grape that is related to the red grape Grenache. It is mostly found in Rhône wine blends and in northeast Spain. Its wines are characterized by high alcohol and low acidity, with citrus and or herbaceous notes. Since the 1980s, it has been the fifth most widely planted white wine grape in France-behind Ugni blanc, Chardonnay, Semillon and Sauvignon blanc.

 

Red Wine Grapes

Barbarossa
An Italian grape variety, also known as Barbaroux in France.

Barbera
Barbera is a red wine grape variety that is either the most- or second most-planted variety in Italy. It gives good yields and can impart deep colour, low tannins and (unusually for a warm-climate red grape) high levels of acid. The best known appellation is Barbera d'Asti. Italian immigrants also brought this grape to Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Uruguay and USA.

Bovale Sardo/Bovaleddu
Synonym of Bovale Piccolo. Red wine grape grown in central Sardinia. Used to make aromatic dry varietal, and rosés, (also blended wines), for early consumption.

Cabernet Franc
Cabernet Franc is one of the major varieties of red wine grape in Bordeaux. It is mostly grown for blending with Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot in the Bordeaux style, but is also vinified alone, particularly in Chinon in the Loire. It is even made into ice wine in Canada. Cabernet Franc is lighter than Cabernet Sauvignon, contributing finesse and a peppery perfume to blends with more robust grapes. Depending on growing region and the style of wine, additional aromas can include tobacco, raspberry, and cassis, sometimes even violets. The Cabernet franc wine's color is bright pale red.

Cabernet Sauvignon
Cabernet Sauvignon is one of the world's most widely recognized red wine grape varieties. It is grown in nearly every major wine producing country among a diverse spectrum of climates. Cabernet Sauvignon became internationally recognized first through its prominence in Bordeaux wines where it is often blended with Merlot and Cabernet franc. From France, the grape spread across Europe and to the New World where it found new homes in places like California's Napa Valley, Australia's Coonawarra region and Chile's Maipo Valley. For most of the 20th century, it was the world's most widely planted premium red wine grape until it was surpassed by Merlot in the 1990s.

Cannonau
Synonym of Grenache used in Sardegna.

Carignan
Carignan is a red wine grape that originated in Cariñena, Aragon (Spain) and was later transplanted to Sardinia, elsewhere in Italy, France, Algeria, and much of the New World. Along with Aramon, it is considered one of the main grapes responsible for France's wine lake (supply glut). In California, the grape is rarely used to make varietal wines, but some examples from old vines do exist. In Australia, Carignan is used as a component of blended wines. In the Languedoc, the grape is often blended with Cinsaut, Grenache, Syrah, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Mourvèdre and Merlot. It has an upright growth habit and can be grown without a trellis. It was crossed to Cabernet Sauvignon to give Ruby Cabernet.

Carmenere
The Carmenere grape is a wine grape variety originally planted in the Médoc region of Bordeaux, France, where it was used to produce deep red wines and occasionally used for blending purposes in the same manner as Petit Verdot. Along with Cabernet sauvignon, Cabernet franc, Merlot, Malbec and Petit verdot, Carmenere is considered part of the original six noble grapes of Bordeaux, France. Now rarely found in France, the world's largest area planted with this variety is in Chile in South America, with more than 4,000 Hectares (2006) cultivated in the Central Valley. As such, Chile produces the vast majority of Carmenere wines available today and as the Chilean wine industry grows, more experimentation is being carried out on Carmenere’s potential as a blending grape, especially with Cabernet Sauvignon.

Cinsault
Cinsaut or Cinsault (pronounced "san-so") is a red wine grape, whose heat tolerance and productivity make it important in Languedoc-Roussillon and the former French colonies of Algeria and Morocco. It is often blended with grapes such as Grenache and Carignan to add softness and bouquet.

Corvina
Corvina is a wine grape variety used to make red wines that is sometimes also referred to as Corvina Veronese or Cruina. It is mainly grown in the Veneto region of northeast Italy. Corvina is used with several other grapes to create the light red regional wines Bardolino and Valpolicella that have a mild fruity flavor with hints of almond. These blends include Rondinella, Molinara. It is also used for the production of Amarone and Recioto.

Dolcetto
Dolcetto is a black wine grape variety widely grown in the Piedmont region of northwest Italy. The name means "little sweet one," though it is nearly always a dry wine. Dolcetto wines can be tannic and fruit driven with moderate levels of acidity. They are typically meant to be consumed one to two years after release.

Malbec
Malbec is a variety of grape used in making red wine. The grapes tend to have an inky dark colour and robust tannins. Long known as one of the six grapes allowed in the blend of red Bordeaux wine, the French plantations of Malbec are now found primarily in Cahors in the South West France region. It is increasingly celebrated as an Argentine varietal wine. It is also grown in Chile, southern Bolivia, on Long Island, New York, and in the cooler regions of California.

Malvasia Nera
Malvasia Nera is a wine grape variety grown in Italy in Asti (Piemonte) and Puglia, particularly in Salento, where it is traditionaly blended with Negroamaro, as in the case of Salice Salentino (wine).Malvasia also can be used to produce an intense red wine, usually sweet and perfumy, called Malvasia.

Merlot
Merlot is a red wine grape that is used as both a blending grape and for varietal wines. Merlot-based wines usually have medium body with hints of berry, plum, and currant. Its softness and "fleshiness", combined with its earlier ripening, makes Merlot an ideal grape to blend with the sterner, later-ripening Cabernet Sauvignon. This flexibility has helped to make it one of the most popular red wine varietals in the United States and Chile.

Molinara
Molinara is a red wine grape from Italy. It adds acidity to the Valpolicella blend made with Corvina and Rondinella. Bardolino also employs the grape at the level of 10% – 20%. It is seldom seen outside these wines, and is losing ground to Corvina in its home territory, but can make wines with bright flavours of red currants and a certain floral quality.

Monica
Monica is a red wine grape that is grown primarily in Sardinia and is one of the few grapes that wine regulations allow to appear on the wine label. The vine originated in Spain but is rarely grown there in recent times. The wine made from these grapes tends to be simple wines made to be consumed young.

Montepulciano
Montepulciano d'Abruzzo is a type of wine grape as well as a type of red wine made from these same grapes in the Abruzzo region of east-central Italy. The grape is however recommended for 20 of Italy's 95 provinces. Up to 10% Sangiovese is permitted to be added to the blend. It is typically a fruity, dry wine with soft tannins, and as such is often consumed young. If aged by the winery for more than two years, the wine may be labelled "Riserva."

Mourvèdre
Mourvèdre, is a variety of red wine grape grown around the world. In Portugal and the New World it is known as Mataró, whilst in some parts of France it is known as Estrangle-Chien ("dog strangler"). In Spain it is known as Monastrell. It produces tannic wines that can be high in alcohol, and is most successful in Rhone-style blends. It has a particular affinity for Grenache, softening it and giving it structure. Its taste varies greatly according to area, but often has a wild, gamey or earthy flavour, with soft red fruit touches.

Nebbiolo
Nebbiolo is considered one of the great wine varieties, bigger, darker and more tannic, even bitter, than most types, but consequently long-lived and prized by collectors. Jealously guarded in its native Italian home and most famous appellation of Piedmont, very few Nebbiolo cuttings and clones have been exported to other countries.

Nero d’Avola
Nero d'Avola is "the most important red wine grape in Sicily" and is one of Italy's most important indigenous varieties. It is named after Avola in the far south of Sicily and its wines are compared to New World Shirazes, with sweet tannins and plum or peppery flavours. It also contributes to Marsala blends.

Petit Verdot
Petit verdot is a variety of red wine grape, principally used in classic Bordeaux blends. It ripens much later than the other varieties in Bordeaux, often too late, so it fell out of favour in its home region. When it does ripen, it is added in small amounts to add tannin, colour and flavour to the blend. It has attracted attention among winemakers in the New World, where it ripens more reliably and has been made into single varietal wine. It is also useful in 'stiffening' the mid palate of Cabernet Sauvignon blends. When young its aromas have been likened to banana and pencil shavings. Strong tones of violet and leather develop as it matures.

Pinot Meunier
Pinot meunier, also known as Meunier, Schwarzriesling, Müllerrebe, and Miller's Burgundy, is a variety of black wine grape most frequently used in the production of Champagne. It was first mentioned in the 1500s, and gets its name and aliases (French meunier and German Müller - both meaning miller) from flour-like dusty white down on the underside of its leaves.

Pinot Noir
Pinot noir is a red wine grape variety of the species Vitis vinifera. The name may also refer to wines produced predominantly from Pinot noir grapes. The name is derived from the French words for "pine" and "black" alluding to the varietals' tightly clustered dark purple pine cone shaped bunches of fruit. Pinot noir grapes are grown around the world, mostly in the cooler regions, but the grape is chiefly associated with the Burgundy region of France. It is widely considered to produce some of the finest wines in the world, but is a difficult variety to cultivate and transform into wine.

Pinotage
Pinotage is a red wine grape that is South Africa's signature variety. It was bred there in 1925 as a cross between Pinot noir and Cinsaut. It typically produces deep red varietal wines with smoky, bramble and earthy flavors, sometimes with notes of bananas and tropical fruit, but has been criticized for sometimes smelling of acetone. Pinotage is often blended, and also made into fortified wine and even red sparkling wine. The grape is a viticultural cross, not a hybrid. In plant breeding, a cross is a cultivar which is the result of crossing two or more cultivars within the same species, while a hybrid is a cultivar bred from members of different species.

Rondinella
Rondinella is a red wine grape mainly grown in the Veneto region of Italy and used in wines such as Valpolicella and Bardolino. The main grape used for these wines, however, is the Corvina.

Sangiovese
Sangiovese is a red wine grape variety originating in Italy whose name derives from sanguis Jovis, "the blood of Jove". It is most famous as the main component of the Chianti blend in Tuscany, but winemakers outside Italy are starting to experiment with it. Young sangiovese has fresh fruity flavours of strawberry and a little spiciness, but it readily takes on oaky, even tarry, flavours when aged in barrels.

Syrah/Shiraz
Syrah is a dark-skinned variety of grape used in wine. Syrah is grown in many countries and is primarily used to produce powerful red wines, which enjoy great popularity in the marketplace, relatively often under the synonym Shiraz. Syrah is used both for varietal wines and in blended wines, where it can be both the major and minor component. It is called Syrah in its country of origin, France, as well as in the rest of Europe, Argentina, Chile, and most of the United States. The name Shiraz became popular for this grape variety in Australia, where it has long been established as the most grown dark-skinned variety.

Tempranillo
Tempranillo is a variety of black grape widely grown to make full-bodied red wines in its native Spain. It is the main grape used in Rioja, and is often referred to as Spain's "noble grape". Its name is the diminutive of the Spanish temprano ("early"), a reference to the fact that it ripens several weeks earlier than most Spanish red grapes. Tempranillo wines can be consumed young, but the most expensive ones are aged for several years in oak barrels. The wines are ruby red in colour, with aromas and flavors of berries, plum, tobacco, vanilla, leather and herb.

Touriga Franca
Touriga Francesa (or Touriga Franca) is one of the major grape varieties used to produce port wine. Touriga Francesa is lighter and more perfumed than Touriga Nacional and adds finesse to this powerful wine. Touriga Francesa has been described by Jancis Robinson as playing "Cabernet Franc to Touriga Nacional’s Cabernet Sauvignon".

Touriga Nacional
Touriga Nacional is a variety of red wine grape, considered by many to be Portugal's finest. Despite the notoriously low yields from its small grapes, it plays a big part in the blends used for the best ports, and is increasingly being used for table wine in the Douro and Dão. Touriga Nacional provides structure and body to wine, with high tannins and concentrated flavours of black fruit. Jancis Robinson has compared its relationship with Touriga Francesa to the partnership between Cabernet Sauvignon and Cabernet Franc, the former providing structure, the latter filling out the bouquet.

Trincadeira
Also known as Tinta Amadeira. A heat resistant red wine variety grown in the Alentejo region of Portugal and used to make a wines with a good colour concentration, very fruity aroma.